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What’s New in the Seventh Edition?
Brief descriptions of new and updated content are provided next on a chapter-by-chapter basis. For a more comprehensive overview of content changes, see the APA Style website (https://apastyle.apa.org).
Chapter 1: Scholarly Writing and Publishing Principles
- Chapter 1 addresses types of papers and ethical compliance.
- The new guidance addresses quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods articles as well as student papers, dissertations, and theses.
- Information on planning for and ensuring ethical compliance reflects best practices.
- Guidance on data sharing, including in qualitative research, reflects open practice standards.
Chapter 2: Paper Elements and Format
- Chapter 2 is designed to help novice users of APA Style select, format, and organize paper elements.
- The title page is updated for professionals, and a new student title page is provided.
- For all papers, the byline and affiliation format on the title page aligns with publishing standards.
- The author note includes more information, such as ORCID iDs, disclosure of conflicts of interest or lack thereof, and study registration information.
- The running head format has been simplified for professional authors and is not required for students.
- Font specifications are more flexible to address the need for accessibility.
- An updated heading format for Levels 3, 4, and 5 improves readability and assists authors who use the heading-styles feature of their word-processing program.
- Two new sample papers are provided: a professional paper and a student paper, with labels to show how specific elements appear when implemented.
Chapter 3: Journal Article Reporting Standards
- Chapter 3 orients users to journal article reporting standards (JARS) and include tables outlining standards for reporting quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods research.
- JARS for quantitative research has been significantly expanded and updated (see Appelbaum et al., 2018; Cooper, 2018).
- The updated JARS now cover qualitative and mixed methods research (see Levitt, 2019; Levitt et al., 2018).
Chapter 4: Writing Style and Grammar
- Chapter 4 provides guidance on writing style and grammar.
- The singular “they” is endorsed, consistent with inclusive usage.
- More detailed guidance helps writers avoid anthropomorphism.
Chapter 5: Bias-Free Language Guidelines
- Chapter 5 presents bias-free language guidelines to encourage authors to write about people with inclusivity and respect.
- Existing guidance on age, disability, gender, racial and ethnic identity, and sexual orientation has been updated to reflect best practices.
- The new guidance is provided on participation in research, socioeconomic status, and intersectionality.
Chapter 6: Mechanics of Style
- Chapter 6 covers the mechanics of style, including punctuation, capitalization, abbreviations, numbers, and statistics in text.
- Updated guidance answers a common question: Use one space after a period at the end of a sentence unless an instructor or publisher requests otherwise.
- Formatting of linguistic examples has changed; quotation marks are now used around examples, rather than italics, to promote accessibility.
- Expanded guidance is provided on the capitalization of proper nouns, job titles, diseases and disorders, and more.
- Guidelines for the presentation of abbreviations address common questions, such as how to include a citation with an abbreviation.
- Guidelines for the presentation of numbers have been updated to be consistent throughout a work (e.g., there is no longer an exception for presenting numbers in an abstract).
- New guidance is given on how to write gene and protein names.
- Updated guidelines allow greater flexibility for lettered, numbered, and bulleted lists.
Chapter 7: Tables and Figures
- Chapter 7 presents guidance on creating tables and figures.
- More than 40 new sample tables and figures are presented, in dedicated sections, covering a variety of research types and topics.
- The presentation of tables and figures in text is more flexible (either after the reference list on separate pages or embedded in the text).
- Formatting of tables and figures is parallel, including consistent styles for numbers, titles, and notes.
- The accessible use of color in figures is addressed.
Chapter 8: Works Credited in the Text
- Chapter 8 addresses appropriate levels of citation as well as plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and other unethical writing practices.
- In-text citations have been simplified; all in-text citations for works with three or more authors are shortened to the name of the first author plus “et al.” (except where this would create ambiguity).
- New guidance is provided on how to cite recorded or unrecorded
- Traditional Knowledge and Oral Traditions of Indigenous Peoples.
- Examples of paraphrasing demonstrate how to achieve clear attribution without overcitation.
- New guidance is provided on how to format quotations from research participants.
Chapter 9: Reference List
- Chapter 9 examines the four elements of a reference list entry (author, date, title, and source).
- The number of authors included in a reference entry has changed; up to 20 authors are now included before names are omitted with an ellipsis.
- The presentation of digital object identifiers (DOIs) and URLs has been standardized. Both are presented as hyperlinks; the label “DOI:” is no
- longer used, and the words “Retrieved from” are used only when a retrieval date is also needed.
- Updated guidance explains when to include DOIs and URLs for works retrieved from most academic research databases as well as from proprietary databases such as ERIC or UpToDate.
- New formatting guidance is provided for annotated bibliographies.
Chapter 10: Reference Examples
- Chapter 10 provides more than 100 examples of APA Style references, each with accompanying parenthetical and narrative in-text citations.
- Templates are provided for every reference category.
- References are streamlined; for example, journal article references always include the issue number, and book references now omit the publisher location.
- Audiovisual materials receive expanded coverage, with new examples for
- YouTube videos, PowerPoint slides and lecture notes, TED Talks, and Instagram and Telegram: @PDFEnglish more.
- Social media, webpages, and websites are addressed in new categories.
- For consistency and ease of formatting, blogs and other online platforms that publish articles are part of the periodicals category.
Chapter 11: Legal References
- Chapter 11 presents expanded and updated legal reference examples.
- Guidelines from The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation continue to be the foundation for APA Style legal references, with some modifications.
- New, relevant legal reference examples are provided (e.g., the Every
- Student Succeeds Act).
Chapter 12: Publication Process
- Chapter 12 provides guidance on the publication process.
- New content helps early-career researchers adapt a dissertation or thesis into a journal article or articles, select a journal for publication, avoid predatory or deceptive publishers, and navigate journal submission.
- Improved guidance on the journal publication process reflects current processes and policies authors need to be aware of when preparing a manuscript for submission.
- The new guidance addresses how authors can share and promote their work following publication.