Malaysian Development Plans and Policies- Malaysia Vision 2020

Malaysian Development Plans and Policies. Malaysia Vision 2020. Also, Why Vision 2020 Failed.

Malaysian Development Plans and Policies

Malaysia has become one of the most enriched and developing countries in Southeast Asia by introducing and implementing some mega plans driven by the government of Malaysia. The higher authority of the country has taken these plans and implemented them in different terms of the government. Malaysia is an economically enriched country located in Southeast Asia that consists of three federal territories and thirteen states. In addition, the South China Sea has separated this country into two regions as Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo’s East Malaysia.

Malaysia has the 35th largest economy globally and the third-largest economy in Southeast Asia after Indonesia and Thailand. Malaysia is going to acquire the eligibility of the developed county by 2020. The Federation of Malaya got independence on 31st August 1957, and Malaysia on 16 September 1963. After 60 years, Malaysia has become one of the most enriched countries in the world by executing many mega policies.

Since 1966, the government of Malaysia has taken 11 medium-term plans to develop the socio-economic conditions in Malaysia; for example, the First Malaysia Plan (1966 – 1970), Second Malaysia Plan (1971 – 1975), Third Malaysia Plan (1976 – 1980), Fourth Malaysia Plan (1981 – 1985), Fifth Malaysia Plan (1986 – 1990), Sixth Malaysia Plan (1990 – 1995), Seventh Malaysia Plan (1996 – 2000), Eight Malaysia Plan (2001 – 2005), Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006 – 2010), Tenth Malaysia Plan (2011 – 2015), Eleventh Malaysia Plan 2016 – 2020. The authority took the first Malaysian plan to exceed the challenges to achieve the country’s economic growth. The New Economic Policy was introduced based on the principle of the second Malaysian plan that was introduced in 1970.

New Economic Policy (NEP)

The late Tun Abdul Razak Hussein, the second prime minister in Malaysia, introduced the New Economic Policy in 1970 under the Principles of OPP1.  This policy has two objectives; for example, the eradication of poverty from Malaysia and the reduction of ethnic discrimination. This policy came out because of the racial riots incident of 1969. Based on the Malaysian social-economic conditions now, it is safe to say that the New Economic Policy had succeeded. After five decades, Malaysia stands in a perfect economic, competitive advantage in Asia compared to other countries. The two main objectives of NEP are eradicating poverty and reducing racial, economic differences in terms of income.

At the evaluation time, the government identified that they could not eradicate poverty fully. They also noticed that the income inequity was reduced, but they could not achieve the goal concerning Malay corporate ownership. Both Tunku and Mahathir had articulated concern that the Malays remained too much dependent on the Chinese economically. Hence, they accepted another policy in 1991 for a period of 10 years, succeeded by the National Vision Policy (NVP) in 2001. The authority adopted NEP for 20 years, from 1970 to 1990. However, they finally replaced it with another mega-development project named National Development Policy (NDP) in 1991.

National Development Policy (NDP)

The National Development Policy, also part of the VISION 2020, was another mega plan to achieve the eligibility of a developed country. The acronym of the national development policy is NDP, introduced under the Principles of OPP2 in 1990. According to Aziz (1996), the NDP was first proposed and introduced by Mahathir Mohamad, also Prime Minister of Malaysia. The prime minister of Malaysia instructed to implement this national development policy in 1990. The prime objective of the national development policy is to achieve economic growth in all sectors and also ensure the benefits will reach every sector of society.

Although the development plan in Malaysia started in 1950 with the publication of the Draft Development Plan of Malaya, the National Development Policy replaced the New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1990. Dr. Mahathir introduced the vision 2020 plan in 1990.

The Malaysian government had taken three-tiered planning covering long-term, mid-term, and short-term planning. The long, medium and short term planning horizons are as follow:

  • Long-Term Planning:
  • First Outline Perspective Plan (OPP1), 1971 – 1990
  • Second Outline Perspective Plan (OPP2), 1991 – 2000
  • Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3), 2001 -2010
  • Vision 2020, 1991 – 2020
  • Medium-Term Planning
  • Five-year development plans
  • Mid-term review of the five years plans
  • Short-Term Planning
  • Annual Budget
First Outline Perspective Plan (OPP1), 1971 – 1990

The New Economic Policy was introduced in 1970 under the Principles of OPP1, 1970-1990. According to the Speech of Dr. Mahathir (2008), the percentage of the nation’s poverty has declined from 52.4 percent in 1970 to 17.1 percent in 1990. In West Malaysia, also known as Peninsular Malaysia, the poverty had declined to 15 percent, while in east Malaysia declined to around 30 percent. However, the New Economic Policy had not been succeeded in eradicating poverty.

Second Outline Perspective Plan (OPP2), 1991 – 2000

New Development Policy (NDP) was introduced under the Second Outline Perspective Plan (OPP2) principle in 1991. It was one of the best policies to make Malaysia a fully developed country by the year 2020.

“In 1992, the Second Outline Perspective Plan (OPP2) was introduced, and it was formulated based on the New Development Policy (NDP)

This plan is covered the period from 1991 to 2000. It also includes the Sixth Malaysia Plan and the Seventh Malaysia Plan towards vision 2020. The Seventh Malaysia Plan has introduced a knowledge-based economy, which can accelerate economic growth and increase international competitiveness.

Malaysian Development Plans and Policies & Why Vision 2020 Failed. Malaysia Vision 2020: Why Vision 2020 failed to achieve its goals.



Figure 1 – Malaysia’s Policies and Development Plans

Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3), 2001 -2010

The Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) was introduced in 2001 for cover from 2001 to 2015. It includes the three mid-term plans such as the Eighth Malaysia Plan (2001-2005), the Ninth Malaysia Plan (2006-2010) as well as the Tenth Malaysia Plan (2011-2015). The objective of the Third Outline Perspective Plan (OPP3) was to increase the usage of ICT in all sectors in society, developing the manufacturing sector and developing the services sector.

 Vision 2020, 1991 – 2020

The Vision 2020 was a mega policy for the Malaysian government to secure the eligibility of a developed country by 2020. The other mid-term and short-term plans were articulated based on achieving this vision of 2020. In addition, the annual budget had been proclaimed to ease the way of achieving vision 2020. The New Vision Policy (NVP) was launched in 2001 and under Malaysia Eighth Plan, while the Economic Transformation Program (ETP) was under Malaysia Tenth Plan in 2010. All of this planning is toward Vision 2020. The purpose of the National Vision Policy is to establish a progressive and prosperous Malaysia where everyone will live in harmony.

The objectives of the National Vision Policy (NVP) were to ensure sustainable and environmentally friendly development. Therefore, the policy focuses more on ensuring that the environment is clean, safe, and healthy for living. Abdullah bin Badawi, fifth Malaysia’s Prime Minister, presented five regional economic corridors to safeguard Malaysia’s vision 2020 goal. The following five economic corridors were significant to enrich Malaysian economic growth: Northern Corridor Economic Region (NCER), Sarawak Corridor of Renewable Energy (SCORE), Iskandar Malaysia, East Coast Economic Region (ECER); Sabah Development Corridor (SDC).

Medium-Term Planning

Medium-term planning, also known as the mid-term plan, was very effective in increasing economic growth in Malaysia. This plan duration was five-year, such as the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (11MP), 2016-2020. Mid-Term Reviews (MTR) of the five-year development plans are based on the framework set by the long-term plan OPP. The medium-term plan implements a five-year development plan targeted for economic growth and the public sector development program. The medium-term review (MTR) is executed in the middle time of the five-year plan. The government takes new initiatives and directives to accelerate the long-term policy with a medium-term plan. They decide whether the project will keep ongoing or need to change something in the plan based on the medium-term review (MTR).

Annual Budget

The annual Budget is also known as short-term planning prepared and declared by the Ministry of Finance in Malaysia. The policy of annual budget implementation is aligned with the long-term and medium-term plans. During the preparation of the annual budget, the authority focuses on all private sector organizations and stakeholders. The annual budget development allocation is based on the development programs and projects approved under the two-year rolling plan.

Malaysia Vision 2020: Why Vision 2020 failed to achieve its goals.
Malaysia Vision 2020

Vision 2020 or Wawasan 2020 was a mega policy of the Malaysian government. Malaysia’s fourth and seventh prime minister Mahathir Mohamad introduced Vision 2020 in 1991. The mega plan was intending to secure a developed country’s eligibility by 2020. He also said the prime goal of the Vision 2020 was to obtain a self-sufficient industrialized nation by the year 2020. Additionally, they wanted to achieve some others objectives by this plan, such as social well-being, economic prosperity, world-class education, technology-based society, political stability, and psychological balances.

Based on achieving the vision 2020, the government took some mid-term and short-term plans, such as the National Development Policy 1991-2000 with OPP2, National Vision Policy 2001-2010 with OPP3, and Economic Transformation Program (ETP) under Malaysia Tenth Plan in 2010. Even the annual budget was proclaimed to ease the way of achieving vision 2020. The authority set these plans to establish a progressive, prosperous, and developed Malaysia where everyone will live in harmony.

The Nine Challenges that Must Overcome to Achieve Vision 2020

Malaysia cannot be a prosperous and developed country until overcome these challenges entirely that experienced from the beginning of independence. Therefore, the authority published eight challenges that must need to chase to achieve Vision 2020.


The first challenge of Vision 2020 is to develop a united Malaysian nation with a spirit of mutual destiny. This will form a peaceful nation where everyone lives in harmony. The country will ensure loyalty, justice, equality, and fair partnership for all citizens called ‘Bangsa Malaysia.’


The second challenge is to create a secure, developed, and psychologically freed country. The people will live in a society with full confidence and faith in the nation. Society must be fully conscious about its opportunity and potentiality also respected by foreigners.


The third challenge of Vision 2020 is to practice liberal democracy inside the country. It can make Malaysia a model for other developing nations in Asia and all over the world. In short, it is all about nurturing and promoting a mature democratic society.


The fourth challenge is to establish an ethical and moral society. The citizen of the nation will live in a society with religious, cultural, and traditional values.


The fifth challenge is developing a liberal, tolerant, and knowledgeable society, in which all Malaysian can practice their culture, traditions, religion, belief, and creeds. All Malaysian people belong to one nation. It doesn’t matter what the religion is, its origin, and the language.


The sixth challenge is to establish an innovative and technology-based progressive society. The people of this society will be a client of technology and utilize them to well-being for society. However, they could not bring all rural people under the technology umbrella.


The seventh challenge is to create a caring and cooperative society in which people will not leave their families but maintain a strong, resilient family system.


The eighth challenge is to assure an economically self-righteous society. They wanted to ensure the fair distribution of wealth in society. They also wanted to establish a society without any discrimination, exploitation, and injustice.


The last and ninth challenge is to establish a prosperous and developed society. The economy of the nation will be strong, resilient, competitive, and dynamic.

Does Malaysia Achieve Vision 2020 Successfully or Not?

Based on the discussion, Malaysia did not achieve Vision 2020 completely. The main aim of Vision 2020 was to establish a self-sufficient industrialized country by 2020 and secure the eligibility of a developed country. Malaysia has not achieved the status of a developing country because the nation could not overcome all the nine challenges mentioned earlier.

Discussion and Opinion Why Vision 2020 has failed

Doubtfully, some reasons affected the failure of Vision 2020 directly and indirectly. Based on my research, I have discovered three important reasons that contribute to the failure of Vision 2020; for example, leadership, discrimination, and the economy.

  1. Leadership

Prime Minister Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad blamed that Malaysia could not achieve Vision 2020 due to the wrong leadership skills of the previous prime minister Abdullah Badawi and Najib Razak. Actually, the administrators in Malaysia could not understand the nine challenges properly.

  1. Discrimination

The challenges of Vision 2020 are fostering a liberal democratic society, moral and ethical society, progressive scientific society, discrimination, and exploitation-free society. A Malay-led government cannot establish a liberal democratic society, and discrimination still exists in several sectors in Malaysia, including University, job, business, and politics. Thus, discrimination obstacles to achieve Vision 2020.

  1. Economy

Finally, the ninth challenge was to create an economically righteous society. An economically righteous society takes care of the interests of all people, not only the rich but in Malaysia. But, rich people are getting wealthier daily through the domination business market while general people survive hand to mouth. The economy couldn’t ensure the fair share of the country’s wealth to everyone; therefore, Malaysia could not achieve Vision 2020.


Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad introduced Vision 2020 in 1991 to establish a prosperous, developed, discrimination-free, technology-based, ethical, and liberal society. However, they have established enough technological, economic, and structural development in Malaysia. However, Malaysia could not achieve Vision 2020 completely.

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      1. Sir Amar passport renewal Korte dichi 10/08/2022 akhon o passport payni…MD.Kalam BX.0293363 MYS200000894614

    1. আমি এপয়েন্টমেনট নিছি কিন্তু অনেক দিন হওয়ার পরও বারকোড পাচ্ছি না।।এখন কি করব?? প্লিজ জানাবেন।।

            1. Sir ame 26/9/2021 amr passport puj lajo te joma di kinto akono slip paini ..kokon Pete pari akoto janaben

        1. Sir ame mys number paise but ame application status cheek korle passport update ashena sir ata kobo problem hobe ????

        2. Mohammad sohel rana passport number br0247284sslep mys 200000771081appointment hoy na keno

          Appointment to kola Selangor pos 45000

    2. BL0250433

      পাসপোর্ট কবে পাবো?
      পাসপোর্টের নতুন নাম্বার কত?

      When I will get my new passport?
      My new passport number?

    3. আমার পাসপোর্ট আমি পোস লাজুর মাধ্যমে রিনিউ করতে দিয়েছিলাম। কিন্তু এখন পেন্ডিং ফর পার্সোনালাইজেশনে আছে 2 মাস ধরে। আমাকে এর মধ্যে দেশে চলে যেতে হবে।
      আমি কি এই পাসপোর্ট দেশ থেকে তুলে নিতে পারবো? যদি পারা যায় কিভাবে করব প্লিজ জানাবেন।

        1. please send back passport

          AMIRUL ISLAM
          MYS200000494461 ( POS LAJU MUAR )

          MYS200000536028 ( POS LAJU MUAR

        2. amar passport renewal jonn joma dici akhano delivery clip paini please help me give My passport…

    4. Mys200000538729
      .intrative delivery date 01/04/2021. Akhono kl high commission e ase ni.kobe asbe.infrom please.advance thanks

      1. My appointment date
        13-09-2021. But in this time don’t show barcode number. Delivery slip number mys200000616686 . Please help me..

      1. Your Passport is ready for collection. আপনার পাসপোর্ট রেডি আছে আপনি চাইলে নিতে পারবেন। +৬০১৭৬৮৫২৫৫১ যোগাযোগ করুন।

    5. Sir amar passport number BQ 0169925 slip no MYS 200000497379 amar appoinment niyece kintu amar tracking or barcode dicce na

    6. I want to check status of my workers’ new passport status, isit arrive at embassy?

      EF846794207MY – my pos laju tracking number
      my workers name:

      ABDUR RAHMAN BM0505085
      RAJAN BL0886873
      ABDUL HAQUE BM0951344

        1. please send back passport
          I want to check status of my workers’ new passport status, isit arrive at embassy?

          AMIRUL ISLAM
          RBB000014132MY ( POS LAJU MUAR )

          RBB000014755MY ( POS LAJU MUAR)

          1. Sir ..26/9/2021amar passport reneaw korar jonno poj lajo te joma di kinto ame kibabe bojbo amar passport high commission ee joma hoyse or entry hoyse ??

    7. BQ0182515 .How can I get my passport from post laju? Can you help me sir? I am trying but can’t

    8. Can you assist me to check whether these three applications are still processing or there have some technical issue?

      1. Name : Md Ariful Islam
      Passport No : BP0023618
      Delivery Slip : MYS200000577804

      2. Name : Abdul Mojid
      Passport No : BM0874647
      Delivery Slip : MYS200000577800

      3. Name : MD Asaduzzaman Suman
      Passport Not : BN0140041
      Delivery Slip : MYS200000578110

      Already pending for five months.

    9. Amar Nam Mohammad Arifurjaman,Ami 2-7-2021 Tarik poslajur madhome amar passport re enu korte dei. kintu akhono. delevari selif paini. Ki korbo bujte parchi na.
      passport nambar BQ0594600

    10. Pls help me to check this passport still showing high commission not yet many day’s ready

      1. Sir ame 26/9/2021 poj lajo te amar passport joma di sir ame jante sai December modde amar passport Pete pari ????

    11. Pls help me to check this passport still showing high commission not yet many day’s ready

    12. Hi sir
      My name is MD HOSAIN ALI
      passport NO.BP0355641
      Delivery Slip No.MYS200000603371
      Sir when I go to pick up my passport appointment for the post office when I click on my slip number another person s name comes up .RAZU AHAMMED removes this name

    13. I send my passport renew application to this Address: 166, Jalan Besar Ampang, Pekan Ampang, 68000 Ampang, Selangor. Is it ok??

      Actually, my friend said that I had to send my application to this Address: 5B & 5C (Lot No.9 & 10), Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra 54100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. but I send to this address: 166, Jalan Besar Ampang, Pekan Ampang, 68000 Ampang, Selangor. should I send my application again to this address:Address: 5B & 5C (Lot No.9 & 10), Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra 54100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia??.

      kindly let me know.

      1. You should have sent to this Address: 5B & 5C (Lot No.9 & 10), Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra 54100, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
        However, hopefully, your problem will be solved. Contact the following number via WhatsApp: +60176852551

    14. Sir,

      Today i went to Pejabat Pos Sungai Wang Plaza, Bukit Bintang to receive my passport. When they check the envelope, they found wrong passport. There was my name & address on the envelope bt the passport was someone else’s. What should i do now?

      My previous passport number is: BT0369063
      Slip number:MYS200000611453
      Barcode : RBB000552967MY

    15. Aug 18, 2021.
      Date of birth, 15.04.1995
      Renew korar jonno Application
      koreci.. Plz provide Delevary slip number

    16. Hello Sir, My 2 workers submit the application on 23-08-2021 by pos laju but Delivery Slip cannot find the Delivery Slip already 2 Months
      Khan Mohammad Mamun – BM 0547920 Pos Laju : EP825156337MY
      Miah Mohamad Yeasin – BP 0216616 Pos Laju: : EP805273303MY

      Thank You
      Frankie Tay

    17. Salam sejahtera.. saya telah menghantar dokumen permohonan untuk pembaharuan passport bagi 5 orang pekerja asing saya pada 06/10/2021 tetapi Passport Delivery Slip Information masih belum ada record. Boleh tolong semak untuk pekerje dibawah:

      HOSSAIN MD MILON – BP0327895
      HOSEN SHAHIN – BQ0115790
      MIAH RUBEL – BN0927749

      Terima kasih

    18. Hi Sir, I am still waiting for the barcode for poslaju, already waited for almost 2 months.



        1. Dear sir/Madam
          Name.Ali Hossain talukder
          P/N. BR0129302
          Sir I already take appointment before 3manth after new not coming barcode ..haw can I do help me settled than issue

          Pos laju address..
          Pejabat pos besar johur baru 80000

          Thanks all..

        2. Mohammad sohel rana passport br0247284 delivery mys 20000771081 Amar passport keno apotmmet hoy na keno ki problem janabe

    19. Name abdul sattar passport namber bq 0187625 mys200000517588 akbosor prai holo kintu pass port akhonu daka theke asena

    20. Hi sir, need your help.


      This passport has send back to the sender by pos laju.

      How can I collect the passport ? Is it possible request High commission to resend here again ?

      Look forward your reply and thank you.

      1. Passport. BY0946059
        Name. Rafikul islam
        Date of birth. 05/04/1994
        Ai passport ta onek din age joma dewya hoyese but akhono online a nai.
        Kindly check kore janaben thank you!

    21. Hi sir, can you assist me?

      barcode: RBB002068147MY

      This passport has send back to the sender by poslaju.

      How can i collect the passport? Is it possible to request bangladesh high commision to resend here again ?

      Look forward your help.

      Thank you.

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    23. Sir 15/4/22 ami amar passport renew jonno bol address a diye felesi,ampang,selangor
      Somossa hobey ki?
      R sir kibabe janbo Embassy amar document received koresen kina
      Name:Mohammad Raton Ali
      Passport :BR0596256

    24. PP: BT0678273.
      Renewal Application was Sent by Post on 11/04/2022
      Haven’t received Slip number yet.

    25. Sir ami passport joma dici onak din hoiea gase akhon o delivery sleep Pai nai
      Passport number.BY0281272

    26. Hello dear sir, how to get Delivery slip i wanted already two month,,

      Name : Salim Reza

    27. Hello dear sir, how to got delivery slip, i waiting already two month,

      Name : Salim Reza
      P/N: BR0827306

    28. 26/07/22 date
      Passport joma disi

      akhono delivery slip ase nai

      Name – Monir Hossain
      Passport – BW0502550

    29. I’ve already mailed my documents 28/09/2022 and documents has been delivered to the high commission on 29/09/2022. But still I haven’t received my delivery slip. Name : Azizul Matubber. PP: BX0427324. Thank you


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    32. I have submitted my passport reissue as a student document and has reached the embassy on 14 January 2023. How will I know what my status is ? Is it being processed or not? When will I get my delivery slip. It says passport not found. Can you please reply

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